Integrating iPads into instruction using Bloom's Taxonomy to Increase Representation, Expression, and Engagement
Dr. Cate Smith
Reading Education and Special Education
Appalachian State University
Developed by Allan Carrington, the Padagogy Wheel is designed to connect Bloom's Taxonomy with Apple iPad applications (commonly known as "apps"). The Padagogy Wheel is divided into five segments that relate directly to the cognitive domains of Bloom's Taxonomy. Within the five segments of the wheel, subcategories explore each domain further with related action verbs, activities, and iPad apps. The goal of the Padagogy Wheel is for students to access the higher order thinking of Bloom's Taxonomy via iPad technology. The wheel allows teachers to develop outcome-oriented lessons by choosing an outcome, activity, and form of analysis or creativity. The Padagogy Wheel was designed to target engagement through immersive learning (Carrington, 2012). Dr. Cate Smith uses the Padagogy Wheel and iPad for instruction in her teacher education classes at Appalachian State University.
According to Carrington, when teachers discuss engagement, they are also referring to motivation. If teachers are unable to motivate students to interact with the material and participate in the learning process, they will be unsuccessful. Dr. Cate Smith agrees and frequently urges her undergraduates to "Engage your students. If we can't engage our students, then we have failed as teachers." Not only is establishing engagement important, but also maintaining the interest and motivation to continue learning is central to long-term learning and success.
Dr. Cate Smith, an Assistant Professor of Special Education at Appalachian State University, uses the Padagogy Wheel because it immerses students in a variety of fun and engaging apps while helping them to access higher order thinking skills. Dr. Smith describes her rationale:
At secondary and postsecondary levels, we want our students to reach for a more advanced understanding of the concepts we present. For example, rather than having them memorize the periodic table of elements, we want them to understand how the elements work together, to predict what would happen if certain elements were to interact, and to apply this knowledge to their world. The same is true of any subject. By using the Padagogy Wheel, I am showing my students that there are multiple ways to access, evidence, and share knowledge. As teacher educators, they can take this practice into their own classroom and differentiate for a variety of abilities.
As a lover of technology, Dr. Smith enjoys incorporating the Padagogy Wheel and iPad into instruction for her teacher educators-in-training. Not only are these tools engaging, they help students to put the concepts of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) into practice to meet the needs of diverse learners. See the video below for an introduction to the Padagogy Wheel by its creator, Allan Carrington [transcript].
Figure 1: Introduction to the Padagogy Wheel by Allan Carrington (1:48 minutes)
Each of the College STAR modules includes a concept map, giving readers an overview of the module content. (A concept map represents information in a graphical format .) The module concept maps show the links between the instructional practice in the module, possible outcomes, and, in some cases, the principles of Universal Design for Learning, known as UDL.
Figure 2, the concept map shown below, illustrates the components of using the Padagogy Wheel to integrate iPad apps into instruction using Bloom's Taxonomy. The module explores both ways to use the iPad for instruction, and how to design instruction using the Padagogy Wheel. First, the module discusses the basic hardware and software of the iPad. Techniques for introducing the iPad to students, tips for using the iPad in instruction, and troubleshooting recommendations are included. Using the iPad for instruction offers benefits for instructors and students alike. After mastering the basics of the iPad, the module explores the Padagogy Wheel and how to design instruction with outcomes in mind. After identifying outcomes, instructors use the wheel to choose apps and design activities with Bloom's higher-order thinking domains as ultimate goals.
Clicking on the concept map, Figure 2, will enlarge the image.
There are multiple ways to navigate College STAR modules. Clicking on the sidebar menu takes you directly to the main sections and subsections of the module.
Navigation features located at the top and bottom of each screen allow you to move through the module. Clicking on the “breadcrumb trail” at the top of the module screen takes you directly to previously viewed parts of the module, as shown below in Figure 3 in the example from the Charting Student Information module.
Figure 3: A "breadcrumb trail" is located below the title of each page. A "breadcrumb trail" is located below the title of each page.
The navigation arrows at the bottom of each screen take you to the previous or next components of the module. The menu link at the bottom of each screen takes you to the top of the screen where you may view the menu sidebar as shown in Figure 3 below.
Figure 4: Navigation links are also located at the bottom of each page of a module.
Additionally, some links within the text lead to other sections of the module. Please use your preferred method of navigation to proceed to the next section about Universal Design for Learning (UDL).